The polyharmonic local sine transform: A new tool for local image analysis and synthesis without edge effect, (with J.-F. Remy), Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, vol.20, no.1, pp.41-73, 2006.

Abstract

We introduce a new local sine transform that can completely localize image information both in the space domain and in the spatial frequency domain. This transform, which we shall call the polyharmonic local sine transform (PHLST), first segments an image into local pieces using the characteristic functions, then decomposes each piece into two components: the polyharmonic component and the residual. The polyharmonic component is obtained by solving the elliptic boundary value problem associated with the so-called polyharmonic equation (e.g., Laplace's equation, biharmonic equation, etc.) given the boundary values (the pixel values along the boundary created by the characteristic function). Subsequently this component is subtracted from the original local piece to obtain the residual. Since the boundary values of the residual vanish, its Fourier sine series expansion has quickly decaying coefficients. Consequently, PHLST can distinguish intrinsic singularities in the data from the artificial discontinuities created by the local windowing. Combining this ability with the quickly decaying coefficients of the residuals, PHLST is also effective for image approximation, which we demonstrate using both synthetic and real images. In addition, we introduce the polyharmonic local Fourier transform (PHLFT) by replacing the Fourier sine series above by the complex Fourier series. With a slight sacrifice of the decay rate of the expansion coefficients, PHLFT allows one to compute local Fourier magnitudes and phases without revealing the edge effect (or Gibbs phenomenon), yet is invertible and useful for various filtering, analysis, and approximation purposes.

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