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Random graph matching at Otter's tree-counting threshold via counting chandeliers


Speaker: Sophie Yu, Duke
Location: MSB 2112
Start time: Tue, May 2 2023, 1:10PM

Given a pair of graphs, the problem of graph matching or network alignment refers to finding the underlying vertex correspondence that maximally aligns the edges. This is a ubiquitous problem arising in a variety of applications across diverse fields such as network privacy, computational biology, computer vision, and natural language processing. Graph matching is an instance of the notoriously difficult quadratic assignment problem (QAP), which is NP-hard to solve or approximate.

Despite the worst-case computational hardness of QAP, I will present a computationally efficient graph matching algorithm based on counting a special family of trees. When the two networks are Erdős–Rényi random graphs with correlated edges through the hidden vertex correspondence, we show that our algorithm correctly matches all but a vanishing fraction of vertices with high probability as soon as the edge correlation exceeds the square root of Otter's constant. Moreover, we further upgrade the almost exact recovery to exact recovery whenever it is information-theoretically possible. This is the first polynomial-time algorithm that achieves exact and almost exact matching with an explicit constant correlation for both dense and sparse graphs.